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Christopher Campbell-Duruflé

Christopher Campbell-Duruflé

Assistant Professor
DepartmentLincoln Alexander School of Law
Areas of ExpertiseInternational law, environmental law, human rights, climate law, Inter-American human rights system, sustainable development, international relations

Christopher Campbell-Duruflé’s work focuses on the role of international law in responding to some of the most pressing challenges of our time. He has published on the negotiation of the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change, appeared before the Senate during the study the Canadian Net-Zero Emissions Accountability Act, and supported discrimination and Indigenous rights litigation within the Inter-American system. His current book project develops a framework of state accountability to analyze the strengths, weaknesses, and gaps of the Paris Agreement’s implementation mechanisms.

Prior to joining the Lincoln Alexander School of Law, Campbell-Duruflé was a Banting Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Cambridge. He remains affiliated as Fellow of the Cambridge Centre for Environment, Energy and Natural Resource Governance (C-EENRG) and member of the C-EENRG Research Series (external link)  editorial team. He completed his doctorate at the University of Toronto, during which he attended five rounds of United Nations climate negotiations and volunteered for the delegation of Burkina Faso. His research was funded, among others, by the Pierre Elliott Trudeau Foundation and a Joseph-Armand Bombardier Canada Graduate Scholarship.

A graduate of McGill University and the University of Notre Dame, Campbell-Duruflé clerked for the former Chief Justice of the Quebec Court of Appeal (J.J. Michel Robert) and worked at the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights in Washington, D.C. and for Lawyers Without Borders Canada in Colombia. He serves on the legal committee of the Centre québécois du droit de l’environnement (external link) , was judge at the Inter-American Human Rights Moot Court Competition and provided strategic litigation trainings in Guatemala, Honduras, and Jamaica. His profile is part of the Human Rights Defenders exhibit at the Canadian Museum for Human Rights in Winnipeg.

Encyclopaedia Entries

  • Multilateral Environmental Agreements, Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (forthcoming, with Jutta Brunnée).
  • International Legislation, Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (forthcoming, with Jutta Brunnée).

Journal Articles

  • Enhancing Climate Adaptation through the Paris Agreement Market Approaches: Opportunities for COP 25 and Beyond, (2019) 13(3) Carbon & Climate Law Review 183.
  • Clouds or Sunshine in Katowice? Transparency in the Paris Agreement Rulebook” (2018) 12(3) Carbon & Climate Law Review 209.
  • The Inter-American Court’s Environment and Human Rights Advisory Opinion: Implications for International Climate Law (2018) 8 Climate Law 321 (with Sumudu Anopama Atapattu).
  • Accountability or Accounting? Elaboration of the Paris Agreement’s Implementation and Compliance Committee at COP 23 (2018) 8 Climate Law 1.
  • Sustainable Development, International Criminal Justice, and Treaty Implementation (Book Review) (2013) 26.2 Revue québécoise de droit international 261.
  • Introduction to the Special Volume on the Case of the Guayubín Massacre, with Bernard Duhaime, Revue québécoise de droit international, Special Edition co-directed with Professor Bernard Duhaime, November 2013.
  • The Right to Juridical Personality of Arbitrarily Detained and Unidentified Migrants After the Case of the Guayubín Massacre, Revue québécoise de droit international, Special Edition, November 2013.
  • La nécessité de prendre en compte les chevauchements des droits autochtones dans la conclusion de traités au Canada (2012) 71 Revue du Barreau du Québec 1.
  • Le Canada et la Déclaration des Nations Unies sur les droits des peuples autochtones : Valeur et pertinence (2010) 23(1) Nouvelles pratiques sociales 130 (with Karine Gentelet and Doris Farget).
  • El derecho indígena a la propiedad como ocasión de reafirmar la indivisibilidad de los derechos humanos (2009) 5 Revista CEJIL 65.


  • A Legal Standard for Ambitious State Mitigation Efforts, in Theory and in Reality, in Alexander Zahar, ed, Research Handbook on the Law of the Paris Agreement, Edward Elgar Publishing. (forthcoming)
  • Towards Transformative Transparency Under Article 13 of the Paris Agreement, in Marie-Claire Cordonier Segger, Alexandra Harrington & Christina Voigt, eds, Routledge Handbook of Climate Law and Governance, Routledge. (forthcoming, with Raul Salas Reyes).
  • The Significant Transboundary Harm Prevention Rule and Climate Change: One-Size-Fits-All or One Size Fits None?, in Benoît Mayer & Alexander Zahar, eds, Debating Climate Law, Cambridge University Press, 2021.
  • All On the Same Train: Bringing the Paris Agreement Home, in Catriona Sandilands, ed, Rising Tides: Reflections for Climate Changing Times, Caitlin Press, Halfmoon Bay, 2019.
  • L’approche interactionnelle du droit international, in Stéphane Bernatchez & Louise Lalonde, eds, Approches et fondements du droit, Éditions Yvon Blais, Cowansville, 2019 (with Hélène Mayrand).

Briefs and Working Papers

  • Submission to the Paris Agreement Implementation and Compliance Committee Regarding its Draft Rules of Procedure, 2022.
  • Brief Presented to the Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development of the House of Commons of Canada, Consultations on Bill C-12 - An Act respecting transparency and accountability in Canada's efforts to achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2050, Centre québécois du droit de l'environnement, 2021 (Contributing author).
  • Sustainable Development Methodology: Assessing the Environmental, Social and Economic Impacts of Policies and Actions, D. Rich, R. Song & K.H. Olsen, eds, Washington D.C.: World Resources Institute; Copenhagen: UNEP DTU Partnership, 2020 (Drafting team member).
  • Sustainable Development Guidance - Guidance for Assessing the Environmental, Social and Economic Impacts of Policies and Actions, Initiative for Climate Action Transparency, 2018 (Contributing author).
  • Commitments by Developing Country Parties under the Paris Agreement, Legal Response Initiative, Briefing Paper 2/2016 (with Pascale Bird).
  • Towards a New Climate Agreement – Principles and Practices for Implementation from a Sustainable Development Perspective, Center for International Sustainable Development Law, 2015 (Contributing author).
  • Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights and Climate Change: A Legal Reference Guide, Sébastien Jodoin & Katherine Lofts, eds, New Haven, Ct.: GEM, CISDL, and ASAP, 2013 (Contributing author).
  • Fellow, Cambridge Centre for Environment, Energy and Natural Resource Governance, 2021-present
  • Banting Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Cambridge, 2021-2022
  • SSHRC Postdoctoral Fellowship, 2021 (declined)
  • Ontario Graduate Scholarship, 2020
  • Trudeau Scholar 2016, Pierre Elliott Trudeau Foundation
  • Joseph-Armand Bombardier Canada Graduate Scholarship, 2016
  • Doctoral Scholarship, Center for International Governance Innovation, 2015
  • Associate Fellow, Center for International Sustainable Development Law, 2014-present
  • Nathan Strauss Q.C. Graduate Fellowship in International Law, University of Toronto, 2014
  • Global Justice Fellow, Munk School of Global Affairs and Public Policy, 2014-2017
  • Fellow, Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, 2013-2014

S.J.D., University of Toronto, 2021

LL.M. (summa cum laude), University of Notre Dame, 2014

B.C.L./LL.B., McGill University, 2009