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Politics and Governance and Sociology Double Major

Degree Awarded: Bachelor of Arts (Honours)
Administered by: Department of Politics and Governance and Department of Sociology
Program Format: Full-time, four-year program.

Applicants interested in the double major program in Politics and Governance and Sociology must apply for admission to one of the ten major programs (Criminology, English, Environment and Urban Sustainability, Geographic Analysis, History, Language and Intercultural Relations, Philosophy, Politics and Governance, Psychology or Sociology), or to Undeclared Arts. Students are not admitted directly to a double major.

The Faculty of Arts accepts applications for transfer to a double major program in the second semester of studies. Approved transfer students commence studies in the double major program in second year.  Further details on the process will be provided by the Faculty of Arts during the first semester.

Students in the Politics and Governance and Sociology double major will learn how we shape and are shaped by formal and informal social and political institutions, norms, and practices from the local to the global level. They will learn to evaluate and analyze decisions, practices, and policies that emerge from a variety of sources, and to understand/assess them using a range of criteria, including empirical, theoretical and ethical bases. The program has a strong emphasis on practical research methods and offers a number of opportunities for experiential learning. These tools will give students the knowledge to strengthen our society and initiate progressive changes through formal and informal structures and institutions.

The core goals of the double major are to graduate students who will be able to:

  • discuss and explain how important decisions are made in today’s society – at the international, national, provincial and local level – by both governmental and non-governmental organizations and informal political institutions.
  • demonstrate knowledge of the socio-historical and global context of contemporary social relations and knowledge production, including ways in which a) structural inequalities and social injustice are manifested in individual and group identities; and b) social injustice, inequalities and identities have been legitimated, normalized, and institutionalized over time and c) people individually and collectively resist discrimination and inequality.
  • demonstrate knowledge and comprehension of classical and contemporary sociological theories and related interdisciplinary perspectives and debates.
  • evaluate and analyze political decisions, administrative practices, and policies that emerge from a variety of formal and informal institutions.
  • employ a variety of empirical, theoretical and normative approaches to evaluate and analyze global, national, and local political processes and events.
  • discuss the structure and function of global, national, and sub-national political institutions.
  • critically read, interpret, assess, conduct and evaluate research methods and methodologies, while demonstrating an informed knowledge and respect for epistemological and ethical issues.
  • demonstrate reflexivity; specifically, an awareness and comprehension of one’s own location in society as well as the different subject positions of the many individuals that make up our diverse society. Implicit in this process is an ongoing critical skepticism and awareness of the production, and the limits of knowledge.
  • exhibit effective communication skills in a variety of formats, including essay writing and oral presentations; demonstrate a facility with words and numerical language as well as the ability to debate cogently, discuss and exchange ideas.
  • demonstrate an ability to understand and critically interpret a wide range of texts in a variety of media, including both scholarly and popular writings.
  • demonstrate social engagement by bridging academic thought and research in relation to practical challenges, policies and strategic organization in local, national and global communities and forums.

Career Opportunities

Graduates of the double major in Politics and Governance and Sociology program will be able to pursue careers in a variety of capacities in any of the public, private, or third (voluntary and nonprofit) sectors. These may include becoming a policy analyst for the federal, provincial, or municipal government, a decision-maker in an NGO or a position in the private-sector, with a company that has extensive interactions with government, or that conducts public research. It might also include positions in international governmental organizations (such as the UN and World Bank), or non-governmental organizations [such as UNICEF or Médicins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders)]. Graduates may also pursue careers in community development, public affairs, human resources, research, teaching, marketing, media research, consulting and the arts. Graduates may also pursue further education through law school, education, social work, or in graduate studies in disciplines such as Political Science, Public Administration, Public Policy, or in Sociology.  

Curriculum Information

Students enter the Politics and Governance and Sociology double major program in their second year of study. The program builds on a first year that is common to the single major programs in the Faculty of Arts (i.e., Criminology, English, Environment and Urban Sustainability, Geographic Analysis, History, Language and Intercultural Relations, Philosophy, Psychology and Sociology), with specialized study in Politics and Governance and Sociology in the following years.

Semesters One and Two: Prior to transferring into the double major program, students take two courses in each of Politics and Governance and in Sociology. In addition to these four courses, students must complete two courses teaching key skills in Critical Thinking and Academic Writing and Research. For breadth, students select two courses from humanities disciplines on Table I. The final two courses are selected from the Open Electives table.

Semesters Three and Four: In second year, students will delve into the qualitative and quantitative research methods necessary to advance through a BA effectively. They also choose two of five introductory courses to the sub-fields in Politics and Governance (exploring the actors and institutions of Canadian government, the emerging institutions and practices of global governance, controversial policy topics, western political thought, and comparative politics), complete two Sociology courses that focus on Toronto and on classical sociological theory. Students round out their second year by taking an elective, and two Liberal Studies courses. In addition, students choose an elective in either Politics and Governance or in Sociology.

Semesters Five and Six: In their third year, students choose four Politics and Governance electives, while to meet their Sociology requirements, they take a course in contemporary sociological theory, one in survey design and analysis, an additional methods course in either advanced statistical analysis or in advanced methods of media analysis. The fourth Sociology requirement is a choice of one of three courses which focus on various aspects of social inequality. Finally, students choose two upper-level Liberal Studies in disciplines besides Politics and Governance and Sociology.

Semesters Seven and Eight: In their final year, students take four electives from the Politics and Governance offerings, three of which should be from the most advanced level. In Sociology, students take two electives, a course on Indigenous perspectives on Canada, and complete a capstone project. The final two courses are upper-level Liberal Studies which can be taken from any discipline outside of Politics and Governance and Sociology.

Transferability Guidelines

In order to transfer to Politics and Governance and Sociology from any of Criminology, English, Environment and Urban Sustainability, Geographic Analysis, History, Politics and Governance, Language and Intercultural Relations, Philosophy, Psychology, or Sociology, students must:

1. have a CLEAR Academic Standing at the end of the Winter term of their second semester of studies; and

2. have successfully completed POG 100 or POG 110 as well as SOC 105. It is strongly recommended that students complete both POG 100 and POG 110 as well as SOC 105 and SOC 107 in first year.

Liberal Studies

Students must take two lower level liberal studies courses and four upper level liberal studies courses to graduate. Students must not choose courses that are restricted for their program or major.

Please refer to the liberal studies chapter of this calendar for more information on the Liberal Studies Policy. Further information on liberal studies can also be found at the Faculty of Arts' Liberal Studies website (opens in new window) .

Table A - Lower Level Restrictions
Politics and Sociology courses and PHL 214 are not available for credit.

Table B - Upper Level Restrictions
Politics and Sociolgy courses and FNF 520 are not available for credit.


Students may pursue any Minor offered by Toronto Met (with some exceptions). Please refer to the Minors (opens in new window)  chapter of this calendar for further information on individual Minor requirements and exclusions.

The G. Raymond Chang School of Continuing Education Certificates

Undergraduate students wishing to pursue a continuing education certificate program should be aware of possible program exclusions. Please refer to the Certificate Registration section of the Curriculum Advising website (opens in new window)  for complete details.

1st & 2nd Semester


  • POG 100     People, Power, Politics
  • POG 110     Power and Influence in Canadian Politics
  • SOC 105     Intro to Sociology
  • SOC 107     Sociology of the Everyday
  • SSH 105     Critical Thinking
  • SSH 205     Academic Writing and Research


Two courses from Table I (opens in new window)  (Humanities).

OPEN ELECTIVES: Two Open Electives


3rd & 4th Semester


  • SOC 470     Toronto: The Changing City
  • SOC 473     Classical Sociological Theory
  • SSH 301      Research Design and Qualitative Methods

REQUIRED GROUP 1: One of the following pairs of two courses:

  • POG 230  Statistics and Social Sciences
    And one course from Table II (Sociology)
  • SOC 411  Introduction to Quantitative Data Analysis
    And one course selected from Table II (Politics and Governance)

REQUIRED GROUP 2: Two courses from the following

  • POG 210     Power and Authority in Canada
  • POG 214     Controversial Policy Topics
  • POG 225     Global Governance
  • POG 235     Western Political Thought
  • POG 240     Intro to Comparative Politics

CORE ELECTIVE/OPEN ELECTIVE: One course from Table I (opens in new window)  or one Open Elective

LIBERAL STUDIES: : Two courses from Lower Level Liberal Studies Table A


5th & 6th Semester


  • SOC 475     Contemporary Sociological Theory
  • SOC 481     Survey Design and Analysis

REQUIRED GROUP 1: One of the following  

  • SOC 482     Advanced Methods of Media Analysis
  • SOC 483     Statistical Modelling

REQUIRED GROUP 2: One of the following

  • SOC 300     Sociology of Equity and Diversity
  • SOC 420     Social Class in Changing Times
  • SOC 525     Media and Images of Inequality
  • SOC 608     Women, Power and Change

CORE ELECTIVE: Four courses from Table II (Politics and Governance) (opens in new window) 

Note: A minimum of eight POG Table II courses must be taken in total, at least three of which must be at the 400-level.

UPPER LIBERAL STUDIES: Two courses from Table B


7th & 8th Semester


  • SOC 490     Capstone: Specializing Your Knowledge
  • SOC 427     Indigenous Perspectives on Canada

CORE ELECTIVE: Four courses from Table II (Politics and Governance) (opens in new window)  

CORE ELECTIVE: Two courses from Table II (Sociology) (opens in new window) 

UPPER LIBERAL STUDIES: Two courses from Table B

Note: A minimum of eight POG Table II courses must be taken in total, at least three of which must be at the 400-level.

A Program Advisory Council (PAC) is a group of volunteers that provides expert advice to a school or department on program related matters such as curriculum, program review, technology and trends in the industry, discipline or profession. For more information, see Senate Policy #158 (Program Advisory Councils).

Politics and Governance

Doug Allen
Health Care Researcher

Canadian Union of Public Employees

Dr. Isabella Bakker
Professor; York Research Chair; Trudeau Fellow

Department of Politics, York University

John Campey
Executive Director

Ralph Thornton Centre

Mary Crescenzi
Senior Executive Director
Employment and Social Development Canada
Government of Canada

Jennifer French
Lead, Indigenous Place-Making
Indigenous Affairs Office
City of Toronto

Martha Greenberg
Deputy Minister, Policy and Delivery (Cabinet Office)
Deputy Minister Champion  - Toronto Metropolitan University
Government of Ontario

Jenny A. Gumbs
Government Relations Specialist
Chair, Sickle Cell Disease Association of Canada
Tropicana Community Services
Member, Administrative Penalty Tribunal (Toronto)

Adam Hopkins
Vice President Academic
First Nations Technical Institute

Tana Turner
Turner Consulting Group


Cathy Crowe
Distinguished Visiting Practitioner

Department of Politics & Public Administration Toronto Metropolitan University

Margrit Eichler
Professor Emerita

Department of Social Justice Education Ontario Institute For Studies In Education/University of Toronto  

Michele Landsberg OC
Journalist, Author, Public Speaker, Feminist, Social Activist

Uzma Shakir
Director, Equity, Diversity & Human Rights 
City Of Toronto  

Hassan Yussuff

Canadian Labour Congress Trade Union Confederation of the Americas