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Criminology and Sociology Double Major

Degree Awarded: Bachelor of Arts (Honours)
Administered by: Department of Criminology & Department of Sociology
Program Format: Full-time, four-year program.

Applicants interested in the double major program in Criminology and Sociology must apply for admission to one of the ten major programs (Criminology, English, Environment and Urban Sustainability, Geographic Analysis, History, Language and Intercultural Relations, Philosophy, Politics and Governance, Psychology or Sociology), or to Undeclared Arts. Students are not admitted directly to a double major.

The Faculty of Arts accepts applications for transfer to a double major program in the second semester of studies. Approved transfer students commence studies in the double major program in second year.  Further details on the process will be provided by the Faculty of Arts during the first semester.

Students in the Criminology and Sociology double-major will have the opportunity to develop proficiency with a range of theoretical and methodological tools used within both Criminology and Sociology, allowing them to think critically about the complexities and structural nature of social inequality and justice. Students will develop a critical understanding of power, inequality, and justice in the social world. Students will engage with theoretical perspectives that allow them to challenge social structures and institutions. Qualitative and quantitative methodological tools will be used to rigorously understand the social and legal foundations of crime, injustice, and social regulation. Successful students will have the capacity to question the status quo and contribute towards social change.

The core goals of the double major are to graduate students who will be able to:

  • Identify the implications of cultural and social diversity for justice and equity within and outside of the criminal justice system, as well as the important role of communities, not-for-profit and private-sector agencies in delivering justice;
  • Understand the impact of structural inequalities (e.g., gender, race, class, legal status) on individuals, communities, and criminal justice outcomes.
  • Use sociological and criminological theoretical frameworks to think critically about access and barriers to justice
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the socio-historical and global context of contemporary social relations and knowledge production, including ways in which a) structural inequalities and social injustice are manifested in individual and group identities; and b) social injustice, inequalities and identities have been legitimated, normalized, and institutionalized over time and c) people individually and collectively resist discrimination and inequality.
  • Critically read, interpret, assess, conduct and evaluate research methods and methodologies used within sociology and criminology, while demonstrating an informed knowledge and respect for epistemological and ethical issues.
  • Demonstrate social engagement by bridging academic thought and research in relation to practical challenges, policies and strategic organization in local, national and global communities and forums. Express the intellectual breadth to allow sociology and criminology specialists to explore new perspectives on identities, social relationships and the organization of social institutions.

Career Opportunities

Students in the Criminology and Sociology Double Major develop proficiency in critical theoretical and methodological approaches, allowing them to make sense of the complexities of justice in the social world. A Double Major in Sociology and Criminology prepares students to work in any field where people, communities, and cultures are important, and are uniquely positioned to offer perspectives on crime and justice that emphasize structural inequalities. Graduate career paths may include education, law, data management and analysis, business, the public service, and non-governmental organizations. Graduates may also pursue academic research and teaching in areas such as Criminology, Sociology, Socio-Legal Studies, Law, or other inter-disciplinary programs.


Curriculum Information

The curriculum builds on a foundational year of interdisciplinary study in the Humanities and Social Sciences, followed by three years of more specialized study in Criminology and Sociology. Students take a combination of 13 required and elective courses in Criminology and 13 required and elective courses in Sociology, as well as 6 liberal studies courses.

Semesters One and Two: The first year is a Common Arts Platform, which is shared with the BA programs in Criminology, English, Environment and Urban Sustainability, Geographic Analysis, History, Language and Intercultural Relations, Philosophy, Politics and Governance, Psychology, and Sociology. They develop foundational understandings of the discipline through two introductory courses in each of Criminology and Sociology. Students also acquire skills and knowledge in two foundational courses, Academic Writing and Research, and Critical Thinking, and choose additional electives from a broad range of areas to gain a broad, interdisciplinary base of knowledge, skills, and methodologies.

Semesters Three and Four: In second year, students are provided with foundational tools in theory and research methods through a Common Arts Platform course, Research Design and Qualitative Methods, an introductory course in quantitative data analysis, and classical sociological theory. Students also acquire foundational knowledge related to the disciplines through courses on criminal law in Canada, indigenous governance in Canada, and the city of Toronto, and courses related to equity and diversity.

Semesters Five and Six: In the third year, students develop a sharper focus on theoretical ideas that are useful to describe and analyze society and the criminal justice system, and take advanced courses in research methodology and ethics. Students will have the opportunity to put theories and research methods into practice by involvement in research projects seeking to discover something new about the world.

Semesters Seven and Eight: In their final year of study, students develop their understanding of social issues and justice in greater depth through elective courses in areas such as youth justice, strategies of crime control and prevention, environmental sociology, and the global economy. Students will take an advanced level special topics seminar in criminal justice. In addition, students will have the opportunity to consider their studies in relation to future goals and plans, and undertake a capstone project.  

Transferability Guidelines

In order to transfer to the Criminology and Sociology Double Major from any of Criminology, English, Environment and Urban Sustainability, Geographic Analysis, History, Language and Intercultural Relations, Philosophy, Politics and Governance, Psychology, or Sociology, students are encouraged to present a cumulative grade point average of 3.00 (B) in their first semester studies at Toronto Met to maximize their chances for consideration, subject to competition and available second-year spaces. Possession of the minimum cumulative grade point average does not guarantee program transfer.

Students must:
1. have a CLEAR Academic Standing at the end of the Winter term of their second semester of studies; and
2. must have successfully completed CRM 100 and SOC 105. It is strongly recommended that students complete, in first year, both CRM 100 and CRM 102 and SOC 105 and SOC 107.

Liberal Studies

Students must take two lower level liberal studies courses and four upper level liberal studies courses to graduate. Students must not choose courses that are restricted for their program or major.

Please refer to the liberal studies chapter of this calendar for more information on the Liberal Studies Policy. Further information on liberal studies can also be found at the Faculty of Arts' Liberal Studies website (opens in new window) .

Table A - Lower Level Restrictions
Criminology courses and Sociology courses and PHL 214 are not available for credit.

Table B - Upper Level Restrictions
Criminology courses and Sociology courses and FNF 520 are not available for credit.


Students may pursue any Minor offered by Toronto Met (with some exceptions). Please refer to the Minors chapter of this calendar for further information on individual Minor requirements and exclusions.

The G. Raymond Chang School of Continuing Education Certificates

Undergraduate students wishing to pursue a continuing education certificate program should be aware of possible program exclusions. Please refer to the Certificate Registration section of the Curriculum Advising website for complete details.

1st & 2nd Semester


  • CRM 100 Introduction to Canadian Criminal Justice
  • CRM 102 Introduction to Criminology
  • SOC 105 Introduction to Sociology
  • SOC 107 Sociology of the Everyday
  • SSH 105 Critical Thinking
  • SSH 205 Academic Writing and Research

REQUIRED GROUP 1: Two courses from Table I (opens in new window)  (Humanities).

OPEN ELECTIVE: Two Open Electives.


3rd & 4th Semester


  • CRM 400 Indigenous Governance/Justice
  • SOC 470 Toronto: The Changing City
  • SOC 473 Classical Sociological Theory
  • SSH 301 Research Design and Qualitative Methods

REQUIRED GROUP 1: Students must complete one of the following pairs of two courses:


CORE ELECTIVE/OPEN ELECTIVE: One course from Table I or one Open Elective

CORE ELECTIVE:  One course from Table II (Criminology)

LIBERAL STUDIES: Two courses from Table A - Lower Level Liberal Studies (opens in new window) .  


5th & 6th Semester


  • CRM 322 Ethics in Criminal Justice
  • SOC 475 Contemporary Sociological Theory
  • SOC 481 Survey Design and Analysis

REQUIRED GROUP 1: One of the following  

  • CRM 310 Advanced Qualitative Research Methods
  • CRM 315 Advanced Quantitative Research Methods

REQUIRED GROUP 2: Two courses from the following

REQUIRED GROUP 3: One course from the following

  • SOC 482 Advanced Methods of Media Analysis
  • SOC 483 Statistical Modelling

REQUIRED GROUP 4: One course from the following

SOC 300 Sociology of Equity and Diversity

SOC 420 Social Class in Changing Times

SOC 525 Media and Images of Inequality

SOC 608 Women, Power and Change


7th & 8th Semester


CORE ELECTIVE:  Two courses from Table II (Sociology)

CORE ELECTIVE:  Three courses from Table II (Criminology)

LIBERAL STUDIES: Two courses from Table B - Upper Level Liberal Studies (opens in new window) 

A Program Advisory Council (PAC) is a group of volunteers that provides expert advice to a school or department on program related matters such as curriculum, program review, technology and trends in the industry, discipline or profession. For more information, see Senate Policy #158 (Program Advisory Councils).


Please see Criminology department website (opens in new window)  for updated information.



Cathy Crowe
Distinguished Visiting Practitioner

Department of Politics & Public Administration Toronto Metropolitan University

Margrit Eichler
Professor Emerita

Department of Social Justice Education Ontario Institute For Studies In Education/University of Toronto  

Michele Landsberg OC
Journalist, Author, Public Speaker, Feminist, Social Activist

Uzma Shakir
Director, Equity, Diversity & Human Rights 
City Of Toronto  

Hassan Yussuff

Canadian Labour Congress Trade Union Confederation of the Americas