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Definitions of Academic Misconduct

According to PDF filePolicy 60: Academic Integrity:

"Any behaviour that undermines the University’s ability to evaluate fairly students’ academic achievements, or any behaviour that a student knew, or reasonably ought to have known, could gain them or others unearned academic advantage or benefit.” (Section 3.1)

The policy lists the most common instances of academic misconduct; however it is not intended to be exhaustive. If you have any questions, please contact the Academic Integrity Office.

– includes but is not limited to:

  • claiming, submitting or presenting the words, ideas, artistry, drawings, images or data of another person, including information found on the Internet and unpublished materials, as if they are one’s own, without appropriate referencing;
  • claiming, submitting or presenting someone else’s work, ideas, opinions or theories as if they are one's own, without proper referencing;
  • claiming, submitting or presenting another person’s substantial compositional contributions, assistance, edits or changes to an assignment as one’s own;
  • claiming, submitting or presenting collaborative work as if it were created solely by oneself or one’s group;
  • minimally paraphrasing someone else’s work by changing only a few words and not citing the original source.

The practice of submitting the same work, in whole or in part, for credit in two or more courses, or in the same course more than once, without the prior written permission of the instructor. Self-plagiarism can also include presenting one’s own previously published work as though it were new.

- includes but is not limited to:

  • having ready access to and/or using aids or devices (including wireless communication devices) not expressly allowed by the instructor during an examination, test, quiz, or other evaluation;
  • copying another person’s answer(s) on a test, exam, quiz, lab report, or other work to be evaluated;
  • copying another person’s answers, with or without their permission, to individually assigned projects;
  • consulting with another person or with unauthorized materials outside of an examination room during the examination period (e.g. discussing an exam or consulting materials during an emergency evacuation or when permitted to use a washroom);
  • improperly submitting an answer to a test or examination question completed, in whole or part, outside the examination room unless expressly permitted by the instructor;  
  • resubmitting altered test or examination work after it has already been evaluated;
  • presenting falsified or fabricated material, including research results (see Section 2.8);
  • improperly obtaining, through deceit, theft, bribery, collusion or otherwise, access to examination paper(s) or set of questions, or other confidential information;
  • collaborating on work to be evaluated where such collaboration has been expressly forbidden by the instructor.

Use of a third party to complete work, with or without payment, for a student, who then submits the work as their own, where such input is not permitted.

- includes but is not limited to:

  • submitting stolen or purchased assignments or research;
  • impersonating someone or having someone impersonate you in person, in writing, or electronically (both the impersonator and the individual impersonated, if aware of the impersonation, may be subject to a penalty);
  • falsely identifying oneself or misrepresenting one’s personal performance outside of a particular course, in a course in which one is not officially enrolled, or in the admissions process (e.g. submission of portfolios, essays, transcripts or documents);
  • withholding or altering academic information, portfolios, essays, transcripts or documents, including during the admissions process.

- includes but is not limited to:

  • submitting altered, forged or falsified medical or other certificates or documents for academic consideration, or making false claims for such consideration, including in or as part of an academic appeal, or the academic misconduct process;
  • submitting false academic credentials to the University;
  • altering, in any way, official documents issued by the University;
  • submitting falsified letters of reference.

- includes but is not limited to:

  • offering, giving, sharing or selling essays, questions and/or answers to tests or exams, quizzes or other assignments unless authorized to do so;  
  • allowing work to be copied during an examination, test or for other assignments.

- includes but is not limited to:

  • obstructing and/or disturbing the academic activities of others;
  • altering the academic work of others in order to gain academic advantage;
  • tampering with experiments or laboratory assignments;
  • altering or destroying artistic or creative works such as drawings or films;
  • removing, altering, misusing or destroying university property to obstruct the work of others;
  • unauthorized access to, stealing, or tampering with any course-related material;
  • unauthorized access to, or tampering with, library materials, including hiding them in a place where they will not readily be found by other members of the university community.

Use of the intellectual property of others for distribution, sale or profit without the authorization of the owner of that material. This includes slides and presentation materials used in a class wherever the owner of those materials has not authorized further use.

All of the provisions of this policy will apply to work that is re-assessed (See Undergraduate Academic Consideration and Appeals Policy #134, and Graduate Student Academic Appeals Policy #152.)

Instructors may, in order to encourage Academic Integrity, include additional specific requirements as long as these are consistent with this policy. Any additional requirements must be published in the course outline (see also Policy 60, Section 7.1.4).

Note: Applicability to Research-Related Activities

For the purposes of this policy, “supervised research” is treated as a separate category to accord with the Tri-Agency Framework: Responsible Conduct of Research, and includes academic milestones such as Comprehensive Examinations, Major Research Papers, Research or Thesis Proposals, Theses and Dissertations, as well as the research and associated writing carried out towards any of these at either the undergraduate or graduate level. (See Procedures 1.5 regarding the process to be followed in addressing suspicions of misconduct in these areas.) Suspicions of research misconduct that may have occurred under the auspices of Toronto Metropolitan University, but are in no way directed towards academic advantage or benefit, are to be addressed under Policy 118: Scholarly, Research and Creative Activity (SRC) Integrity rather than PDF filePolicy 60.